Category Archives: Seerah

Rabiul Awwal

The month of Rabi’-Ul-Awwal is considered to be amongst the most special and significant months, because mankind was blessed with the birth of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (saw). Regarding this special event Allah (swt) has stated in the Holy Quran “We have sent him (Muhammad saw) as a source of mercy for the A’alimeen (humans, jinns and all else that exists),” (Surah 21.Al- Anbiya: Verse 107).

Muhammad (saw), the master of the prophets was born in the holy city of Mecca on Monday morning, the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th or 12th of Rabi’-Ul-Awwal. Ibn Sa’d reports that Muhammad’s (saw) mother, Aamina, stated regarding the birth of her son “When He (saw) was born, there was a light that issued out of my pudendum and lit the palaces of Syria.” (Mukhtasar Seerat-ul-Rasool)

As is mentioned above Allah (swt) has stated in the Glorious Qur’an: “We have sent him (Muhammad saw) as a source of mercy for the A’alimeen.” Not only was Rasulullah (saw) a source of numerous blessings after receiving the task of prophethood, but from his birth up to his death and until the day of judgment billions of people have and will continue to benefit from his blessings. A clear example of this is when Halimah, the daughter of Abu Dhu’ayb who was accompanied by her husband Harith and a new born son of their own, decided to undertake a journey from a small village situated south east of Mecca to the actual city of Meccah Mukarramah. This was in order to acquire a nursling. She narrates: “It was a year of drought, and we had nothing left. I set forth on a gray she camel of mine, and we had an old she camel with us which could not even yield one drop of milk. We were kept awake all night by our son who was crying due to hunger, for I didn’t have enough in my breast to feed him; and that she camel of mine was so weak and emaciated I often keep the others (Tribe of Bani Sa’d Ibn Bakr) waiting.”

Once everyone began looking for nurslings, Rasulullah’s (saw) mother Aamina offered her son first to one and then to another until finally she had tried them all and they had all refused. “That” said Halimah, “was because we hoped for some compensation from the child’s father.” “An orphan” we said, “what will his mother and grandfather be able to do for us?” Not that they would have wanted direct payment for their service, since it was considered dishonorable for a woman to take a fee for suckling a child. The recompense they hoped for, though less direct was of a far wider scope. For example, creation connections and links with people from the city.

On the other side, though the foster-parents were not expected to be rich, they must not be too poverty-stricken, and it was evident that Halimah and her husband were poorer then any other of their companions. Whenever the choice lay between her and another, the other was preferred and chosen; and it was not long before everyone of the Bani Sa’d women except Halimah had been entrusted with a baby. Only the poorest nurse was without a nursling; and only the poorest nursling was without a nurse.

“When we decided to leave Mecca,” said Halimah, “I told my husband: ‘I hate to return in the company of my friends without having taken a baby to suckle. I shall go to that orphan and take him.’ ‘As you wish’ he said. ‘it may be, that God will bless us through him.’ So I went back and took him, for no reason except that I could find no baby but him. I carried him back to where our mounts were stationed, and no sooner did I put him in my bosom, my breasts overflowed with milk. He drank his fill, and with him his foster-brother drank likewise, his fill. Then they both slept; and my husband went to that old she camel of ours, and amazingly her udders were full. He milked her and drank of her milk and I drank with him until we could drink no more and our hunger was satisfied.

We spent the best of nights, and in the morning my husband said to me: ‘by God, Halimah, it is a blessed creature that you have taken.’ ‘That is indeed my hope,’ I said. Then we set out, and I rode my camel and carried him with me on her back. She outraced the whole troop, nor could any of their camels keep pace with her. ‘Wow!’ They said to me, ‘Wait for us! Isn’t that the same camel you came on?’ ‘Yes by God,’ I said, ‘She is the very same.’ ‘Some amazing thing has happened to her,’ they said.

We reached our tents in the Bani Sa’d, and I know of no place on God’s Earth more barren than that. But after we brought him to live with us, my flock would come home to me and would be full of milk. We milked them and drank and when others had no milk; our neighbors would say to their shepherds. ‘Go graze your flocks where he has grazed his’, meaning my shepherd. But still their flocks came home hungry, yielding no milk, while mine came well fed, with plenty of milk; and we ceased not to enjoy this increase and this bounty from God until the baby’s two years passed.”

During the pre-Islamic days of Arabia, everyone including the Romans and Persians were in the midst of ignorance and darkness. They were amongst the most uncivilized people the world had seen. Not only were they indulged in evils and vices such as adultery, fornication, incest, rape, stealing and murder they went to the extent of burying their baby daughters alive! Allah (swt) has stated in the Holy Quran “And when the news of the birth of a female child is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inward grief! He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the Earth? Certainly their decisions are evil.” (Surah 16. An-Nahl: verse 58-59)

Nevertheless the Holy Prophet (saw) was sent to this world with the light of monotheism, eradicating all ignorant and uncivilized customs, rituals, practices and beliefs. Allah (swt) has stated in the glorious Quran “Indeed Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when he sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad saw) from among themselves, reciting unto them His verses, (The Quran) and purifying them, (from sins by their following him) and instructing them (in) the Book (Quran) and Al-Hikmah, (the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet saw) before that they had been in manifest error,” (Surah 3. Al-Imran: Verse 164).

Source:Madania.org

The Death of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam)

COMPLETION OF HIS TASK:
When Islam reached the pinnacle of perfection, these words were sent down by Allah:
‘Today ! have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing on you, and I have approved Islam for your religion.'(5: 3) The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had conveyed the message truthfully, he had fulfilled the trust placed in him and had striven for Allah as he should. Allah had delighted His Prophet when people entered Islam in throngs. At this stage, Allah gave His Prophet permission to leave this world and the hour of meeting drew near. Allah announced:

When comes the help of Allah and victory and you see people entering into the religion of Allah in throngs, then glorify the praise of your Lord and ask His forgiveness. He is Ever-turning. (110: 1-3)

THE PROPHET’S ILLNESS:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was taken ill shortly before the end of Safar. During the night he had been to Baqi’ al-Gharqad, a cemetery in Madinah now called al-Baqi’, to pray for the dead. The following morning he became ill.

A’ishah, Umm al-Mu’minin (may Allah be pleased with her) said, ‘The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah returned from al-Baqi’ and found me suffering from a headache. I was saying, “O my head!” He said, “Rather, by Allah, A’ishah, my head!” ‘

His pain increased. Then, in the house of Maymunah, he called his wives and asked them to permit him to be nursed in A’ishah’s house. All of them agreed. He came out walking between two men of his family, Fadl ibn Abbas and Ali ibn Abi Talib. His head was bandaged and his feet were dragging as he entered A’ishah’s house.

A’ishah said that during his final illness, he told her, ‘A’ishah, I still feel pain from the food I ate at Khaybar. I feel my aorta being cut because of that poison.’

THE LAST EXPEDITION:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had ordered Usamah ibn Zayd ibn Harithah to lead an expedition to Syria, commanding him to take the cavalry to the borders of al-Balqa’ and ad-Darun in Palestine.

Many of the leading Muhajirun and Ansar were in his army, the most eminent being Umar ibn al-Khattab. The Prophet’s illness took a serious turn when the army was at the border of al-Jurf. After his death, Abu Bakr(R.A.) sent forward the army under Usamah(R.A.) in order to carry out the Prophet’s last wishes and to fulfil what he had wanted.

During his illness, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah told the Muslims to offer hospitality to the delegations in the way that he had and to be generous with their gifts to them. They should not allow two religions to co-exist but should expel the idol-worshippers from the Arabian peninsula.

A CAUTION:
One day while he was ill, a group of Muslims gathered in A’ishah’s house. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah welcomed them and prayed for their guidance on the right path, their victory and their success. He said, ‘I advise you to fear Allah and I pray for Allah to watch over you. I am a clear warner to you from Him. Do not be arrogant where Allah’s servants and habitations are concerned. Allah has said to me and to you, “That is the Last Abode; We appoint it for those who desire not exorbitance in the earth, nor corruption. The ultimate issue is to the God-fearing. “(28: 83) and “is there not in Jahannam a lodging for those who are proud!” (39: 60)’

AN ASCETIC:
A’ishah said that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said during his final illness, A’ishah, what have you done with the gold!’ When she brought a few coins to him, he began to turn them over in his hand and said, ‘What could Muhammad say to his Lord if he were to meet Him with these! Give them away!’

CONCERN FOR THE PRAYER:
The pain was hard for the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to bear. He asked, ‘Have the people prayed? Those with him answered, ‘No, they are waiting for you, Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.’

He said, ‘Pour some water into a basin for me.’
When they took it to him, he washed and tried to get up, but he fainted. When he regained consciousness, he asked,
‘Have the people prayed?’
‘No, they are waiting for you, Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.
‘Pour some water into a basin for me.
He washed again and tried to get up, but once again he fainted. When he regained consciousness, he asked,
‘Have the people prayed?’
Once more he was told, ‘No, they are waiting for you, Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.
He again said, ‘Pour some water into a basin for me.
He washed and struggled to get up, but once more he fainted. When he came to he asked, ‘Have the people prayed?’
‘No, they are waiting for you, Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.

CONCERN FOR THE IMAMAH OF ABU BAKR:
The people were sitting quietly in the mosque waiting for the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to lead the ‘Isha’ prayer. However, he sent for Abu Bakr to lead it instead. Abu Bakr, a tender-hearted man, said, “Umar, you lead the prayer!’

Umar replied, ‘You are more qualified to do it.’ So Abu Bakr led the people in prayer during that period.

When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah felt better he went out for the Zuhr prayer supported by two men, al-Abbas and Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with them). When Abu Bakr saw him arrive, he began to move back but the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah motioned to him not to move. He asked al-Abbas and Ali to seat him by Abu Bakr who prayed standing while the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah prayed sitting.

THE FAREWELL ADDRESS:
Sitting on the mimbar with his head bandaged the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said, ‘Allah gave one of His slaves the choice between this world or that which is with Him. His Slave chose that which is with Allah.’ Abu Bakr realised that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was referring to himself and broke into tears, saying, ‘We will ransom you with ourselves and our sons.

A LAST LOOK:
Abu Bakr led the Muslims in prayer until the Monday morning. While the Muslims performed the Fair prayer, the Prophet lifted up the curtain of A’ishah’s door and gazed at them standing before their Lord. He saw the fruits of his efforts to call people to Islam and jihad and Allah knew how happy he was. His face was beaming with joy.

The Companions Said, ‘He lifted the curtain of A’ishah’s room and stared at us while he was standing there. It was as if his face was an open page of the Qur’an; he smiled and we were put to the test by getting carried away with our delight. We thought he might be coming out to the prayer but he indicated to us to finish it. He then pulled the curtain down. That was the day on which he died.’

A WARNING:
One of the last pronouncements of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was, ‘May Allah fight the Jews and Christians! They turned the graves of their Prophets into places of worship. Two religions should not remain in the land of the Arabs.’

A’ishah and Ibn Abbas said, ‘When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was ill, he drew up his cloak over his face. When he was distressed, he uncovered his face and while he was like that, he said, “May Allah curse the Jews and the Christians who turned the graves of their Prophets into places of worship.” He was warning the Muslims against that practice.’

THE FINAL INSTRUCTIONS:
When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was close to death, he repeated, ‘Be careful of prayer and those in your charge.’ Then his breast began to heave and his speech became inaudible.

Ali said, ‘The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah commended the prayer and zakat to Muslims and to be generous to those in their charge.’

A’ishah said: ‘When he had his fatal illness I started reciting al-Mu’awwidhatayn as he used to do when he was ill. He raised his eyes to the Heaven and said: “With the Highest Companion, with the Highest Companion”.’

She added: ‘just at that moment, Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr came in with a small, green, freshly-cut twig in his hand. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah looked at it and I thought that he wanted to use it as a miswak. I took it and chewed it to make it soft and pliable, then I handed it to him. He rubbed his teeth with it thoroughly. Then just as he tried to hand it back to me it fell from his hand.’

She also said, ‘In front of him was a small pot of water. He dipped his hand into it and wiped his face, saying, “There is no god but Allah. Verily there are pangs of death.” Then he raised his forefinger and began to say, “The Highest Companion, the Highest Companion!” until he died and his hand slipped into the water.’

A’ishah described his last moments: ‘The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was ill and his head rested on my thigh. He fainted and then regained consciousness and looked up at the ceiling. He said, “O Allah, the Highest Companion.” Those were the last words that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah spoke.’

LEAVING THIS WORLD:
When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah left this world, he controlled the entire Arabian peninsula and kings feared him. Yet he left not a dinar or dirham, not a male or female slave, nothing except his white mule, some weapons and a piece of land he had already given away as sadaqah, charity.

His armour had been pawned with a Jew for thirty sa’s of barley. He had been unable to find anything with which to redeem it before he died.

During his illness, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah set free forty slaves. He asked A’ishah to give away as sadaqah the six or seven dinars she was keeping for him.

A’ishah has related, ‘When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah died, there was nothing in the house that a living creature could eat except a little barley on a shelf. It lasted for a long time until I weighed it and then it finished.’

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah died on Monday, 12 Rabi’ al-Awwal, 11 A.H. in the heat of the afternoon. He was sixty-three years old. It was the darkest, hardest and most difficult day for the Muslims and an affliction for mankind just as his birth had been the happiest day on which the sun ever rose.

Anas and Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said, ‘The day on which the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah came to Madinah was the most radiant ever known but the day on which he died was the darkest ever.’

When people saw Umm Ayman weeping they asked why. She answered, ‘l knew that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah would die, but I weep for the revelation from heaven which has been taken from us.’

NEWS OF HIS DEATH:
News of the death of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah descended on the Companions like a thunderbolt. They were stunned because of their intense love for him. They had become used to his loving care for them just as children are assured of the protection of their parents, but even more so. Of his concern Allah Almighty says, ‘Now there has come to you a Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) from among yourselves: grievous to him is your suticering: anxious is he over you, gentle to the believers, compassionate.’ (9: 128)

Every one of his Companions reckoned that he was more gracious and considerate to him than to any other Companion. Some of them could hardly believe the news of his death. Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) rebuked the person who told him and then he went to the mosque and addressed the people, saying, ‘The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will not die until Allah annihilates the hypocrites.’

ABU BAKR(R.A.):
Abu Bakr(R.A.), a man of determination and courage, was needed at this difficult hour. He rushed out from his house when the news reached him. At the door of the mosque he stopped briefly and heard Umar addressing the people. Then he went straight to A’ishah’s room where the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah lay covered with a cloak. He uncovered his face and kissed him, saving, ‘You are dearer to me than my father and mother. You have tasted the death which Allah has decreed for you. A second death will never overtake you.’ He replaced the cloak over the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s face and returned to the mosque. He found Umar still speaking to the people. He called softly, ‘Umar, be quiet.’

Umar was too excited to listen and went on talking. Abu Bakr realised that Umar was not in a mood to pay attention, so he stepped forward to speak. When the people heard his voice, they came over to him, leaving Umar. Abu Bakr praised Allah and then said, ‘O people! If anyone worships Muhammad, tell him that Muhammad is dead. But if anyone worships Allah, then Allah is alive and does not die.’

Then he recited this verse: ‘Muhammad is only a Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam). Messengers have passed away before him. Why, if he should die or is slain, will you turn about on your heels? If any man should turn about on his heels, he will not harm God in any way; and God will recompense the thankful.’ (3: 144)

One man who witnessed the scene in the mosque, commented, ‘By Allah, it was as if the people did not know that this verse had been sent down until Abu Bakr recited it on that day. They listened to it and from then on it was always on their lips.’

Umar Said, ‘By Allah, when I heard Abu Bakr recite the verse, I was dumbfounded. I fell down as if my legs would not hold me up. I knew that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was dead.’

ABU BAKR(R.A.) IS PAID HOMAGE AS CALIPH:
In the Hall of Banu Sa’idah, the Muslims paid homage to Abu Bakr as the successor to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah. They were anxious to prevent devilish intrigues from destroying their unity. They were determined that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah would leave this world with the Muslims unified and under a strong leader who could take charge of their affairs.

FAREWELL TO THE MESSENGER(SALLALLAHU ALAIYHI WASSALLAM) OF ALLAH:
The initial shock and grief experienced by the community were replaced by tranquillity and confidence. They concentrated on the task for which the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had trained them, beginning with the preparations for his burial.

After members of his family had finished washing and shrouding his body, they placed it in a bier in his house. Abu Bakr told them that he had heard the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah say, ‘No Prophet dies but that he is buried where he dies.’

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s bed, in which he had died, was removed and a grave dug beneath it by Abu Talhah al-Ansari.

The people came to pay their respects and to say the funeral prayer over him. They came in groups. First the men entered, then the women and lastly the children. No one acted as Imam for his funeral prayer.

A SAD DAY:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s death heralded a sad day in Madinah. When Bilal gave the adhan for Fajr, he could not mention the Prophet without breaking down. Hearing his sobs increased the Muslims’ sorrow. They were used to listening to the adhan while the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was in this world. Umm Salamah, the Umm al-Mu’minin, said, “What an affliction it was! No distress which befell us after that could compare with our loss of him, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’

The Prophet had once said, ‘O people! Whoever of the people – or believers – has any affliction, they should take comfort by remembering their loss of me. None of my community will ever suffer a greater loss than my death.’

THE PROPHET’S WIVES:
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid al-Qurashiyyah al-Asadiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her) was the first of the Prophet’s wives. He married her before his prophethood when she was forty. She died three years before the hijrah. She bore him all of his children except for Ibrahim.

After her death he married Sawdah bint Zam’ah al-Qurashiyyah. Later he was wedded to A’ishah as-Siddiqah bint Abi Bakr as-Siddiq who was the most intelligent and knowledgeable of the women of the Ummah. Hafsah bint Umar ibn al-Khattab was his next wife, followed by Zaynab bint Khuzaymah who died two months later. He then married Umm Salamah, Hind bint Abi Umayyah al-Qurashiyyah al-Makhzumiyyah who was the last of his wives to die. He also married Zaynab bint ,Jahsh, the daughter of his aunt Umaymah. He married Juwayriyyah bint al-Harith ibn Abi Dirar al-Mustaliqiyyah, Umm Habibah bint Abi Sufyan and Safiyyah bint Huyayy ibn Akhtab, chief of the Banu’n-Nadir. His last wife was Maymunah bint al-Harith al-Hilaliyyah. When he died he had nine wives; only Khadijah and Zaynab bint Khuzaymah had died during his lifetime. All of them, except A’ishah, had been widows when he married them. Two bondswomen also survived. They were Mariyah bint Sham’un, the Egyptian Copt who had been presented to him by Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt, and who was the mother of his son Ibrahim, and Rayhanah bint Zayd, of the Banu’n-Nadir. When she became a Muslim, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah set her free and married her.

THE PROPHET’S CHILDREN:
Khadijah bore him al-Qasim, by whom the Prophet had his kunyah; he was called Abul Qasim the father of al-Qasim. He died in infancy. Then Khadijah bore the Prophet four daughters: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, Fatimah, and another Son, Abdullah, who was known as at-Tayyib and at-Tahir. Fatimah was the Prophet’s most beloved daughter. Of Fatimah, he said that she would be the leader of the women in Paradise. She married Ali ibn Abi Talib, the son of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s uncle. She had two sons, Hasan and Husayn, about whom the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said, ‘Al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the leaders of the youths in Paradise.

Mariyah the Copt was the mother of Ibrahim who died while still an infant. When he died, the Prophet said in sorrow, “The eye weeps and the heart is sad, but we do not say anything to incur the anger of Allah. We are sad, O Ibrahim”.

The Farewell Hajj

THE PROPHET’S FAREWELL HAJJ:
When Allah had purified the Ka’bah from desecration and the idols were destroyed, the Muslims yearned to perform hajj again. The mission of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was also nearing completion and it was necessary for him to bid farewell to his loving Companions. So Allah gave permission to His Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) to take them for hajj. It was the first hajj for him since he began his mission.

He left Madinah for many reasons: to perform hajj; to meet Muslims from far and near; to teach them their faith and its rituals; to bear witness to the truth; to hand over the trust; and to give his final instructions, He would administer an oath binding on the Muslims to follow his teachings and to be rid of the last traces of Jahiliyyah. More than a hundred thousand Muslims performed hajj with him. This is known as Hajjat al-Wada’ (the ‘Farewell Hajj’) and Hajjat al-Balagh (the Hajj of Conveying’).

THE PROPHET PERFORMS HAJJ:
Once the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had decided to go on hajj he informed the people of his intention and they started to prepare for the journey.

When news of it spread outside Madinah, people flocked to the city wanting to go on hajj with the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah. Huge throngs also joined him on the way. The crowds stretched in front of him, behind him, and to his right and left as far as the eye could see. He left Madinah on Saturday, 25 Dhu’l-Qa’dahl after praying four rak’ats for Zuhr. Before the prayer, in a sermon, he explained the essentials of putting on ihram, the pilgrim dress, and the obligations and sunan of the hajj.

As he departed he said the talbiyah: ‘At Your service, O Allah, at Your service! You have no partner. At Your service! Praise and Blessing are Yours and the Kingdom. You have no associate.’ The crowd chanted the talbiyah along with him as they continued their journey

He entered Makkah on 4 Dhu’l-Hijjah and went straight to the Masjid al-Haram. He performed tawaf of the Ka’bah and the sa’y between Safa and Marwah. He stayed in Makkah for four days and then on the Day of Tarwiyah, 8 Dhu’l-Hjjiah, he made for Mina with his Companions He prayed Zuhr and ‘Asr there and spent the night.

At sunrise on 9 Dhu’l-Hijjah, he left Mina and made for Arafat followed by all the pilgrims. It was a Friday. Down in the valley, he delivered a great khutbah to the people while seated on his camel. He confirmed the principles of Islam and struck at the roots of idolworship and jahiliyyah. He commanded the people to treat as inviolable and sacrosanct those issues on which all religions agree life, property, and honour.

He declared that all the customs of Jahiliyyah were trampled under foot and that all usury was eliminated and made void. He commanded that people treat women well and he mentioned the rights men have over women and those which women have over men, adding that it was obligatory to provide food and clothing for them.

He commanded his community to hold fast to the Book of Allah; as long as they did this they would not be misguided, he said. Finally, he told them that on the Day of Judgement Allah would ask them about him. He asked them to bear witness that he had conveyed to them the message as he had been commanded.

They replied as one voice, ‘We testify that you have conveyed the message and that you have fulfilled your task.

He pointed to the sky and called on Allah three times to bear witness to it. Then he commanded those Present to convey the message to those who were absent.

When the khutbah was over, he called on Bilal to give the adhan. Then the iqamah was given and he prayed Zuhr with two rak’ats and after the iqamah for ‘Asr had been given he prayed that, too, with two rak’ats.

When he had finished the prayers, he mounted his camel and rode until he came to Mawqif, the halting place at Arafat. Remaining on his camel, he made supplication, prayed and glorified Allah until sunset. In his supplication he raised his hands to his chest, like a pauper begging for food, and pleaded,

O Allah, You hear my words and You see where I am. You know my secrets and what I reveal. Nothing can be hidden from You. I am the poor unfortunate who seeks help and protection. I am fearful and apprehensive, confessing and acknowledging my wrong actions.

I ask You as a poor wretch asks and I entreat You with the entreaty of a humble, sinful person. I make supplication to You as a fearful, blind person does; one who bows low before You and whose eyes overflow with tears for You, whose body is humble and who is powerless against You. O Allah, do not make me despair in my calling on You, Lord. Be merciful and compassionate; to me, O best of those who are asked and best of` givers!

Then it was revealed to him: ‘Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing on you, and I have approved Islam for your religion.'(5: 3)

At sunset, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah moved from ‘Arafat to Muzdalifah. There he prayed Maghrib and ‘Isha’ and then slept until morning. At dawn he prayed Fajr for its first time then rode until he came to the Mash’ar al-Haram the sacred site at Muzdalifah. He faced the qiblah and began to make supplications. He recited the takbir (‘Allah is great’) and the tahlil (‘There is no god but Allah’). He left Muzdalifah before sunrise and travelled quickly to the jamrat al-Aqabah at Mina, and threw pebbles at this symbol of Shaytan.

He delivered a meaningful sermon in Mina in which he informed the Muslims of the sanctity of the Day of Sacrifice, of its inviolability and its favour with Allah. He also reminded them of the sanctity of Makkah over all other cities. He commanded them to obey their leaders according to the Book of Allah; to adopt the hajj practices he had used; and not to revert to being unbelievers after his time or to start fighting amongst themselves. He commanded that they pass on his words. ‘Worship your Lord, pray your five prayers, fast your month, and obey the One in command and you will enter the Garden of your Lord, ‘ he said. Then he bade the people farewell. Thus this hajj was named ‘The Hajj of’ Farewell.’

Next, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah went to the place of sacrifice at Mina and sacrificed sixty-three camels, one for each year of his life. He commanded Ali to sacrifice the rest of the hundred camels brought from Madinah. When the prophet had finished making the sacrifice, he called for the barber and had his head shaved. He divided his hair between those who were near him. Then he rode to Makkah and performed tawafal-Ifadah, which is also called tawaf az-Ziarah. At the well of Zamzam he drank while standing before returning to Mina that same day where he spent the night. The next morning he waited until the sun had declined before going to perform the ritual stoning of Shaytan. He started with the stoning of Jamrat-al-‘Ula, then of Jamrat-al-Wusta and lastly of Jamrat-al-Aqabah. This was repeated over the three days of ayyam at-Tashriq following the Day of Sacrifice.

After the three days of Tashriq, he went to Makkah and performed the tawaf of Farewell before dawn. Then he asked his Companions to prepare for their departure to Madinah. On their return journey they stayed the night at Dhu’l-Hulayfah.

When he first saw Madinah on his return from Makkah, he recited the takbir three times and then said,

There is no god but Allah, alone with no partner. His is the kingdom and His is the praise. He has power over all things. We are returning, repenting, worshipping, prostrating to our Lord, and praising Him. Allah has been true to His promise and has helped His slave and defeated the enemies alone.’

He entered Madinah in broad daylight.

The Year of Delegations

DELEGATIONS:
After Makkah had been conquered and the Prophet had returned victorious from Tabuk, Arab delegations began to pour into the heart land of Islam. They learned about Islam, saw the character of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, and the life-style of his Companions. Tents were erected for them in the courtyard of the mosque; they heard the Qur’an recited; watched the Muslims praying and asked the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to explain the faith to them. He impressed them with his eloquence and wisdom, and he constantly quoted verses from the Qur’an. They believed what they heard and were well satisfied. They returned to their homes full of zeal, calling on their people to accept Islam and decrying paganism and its negative effects.

Dimam ibn Tha’labah came to Madinah representing the Banu Sa’d ibn Bakr. He was a Muslim when he returned to his people and he was determined to invite them to Islam.

The first thing he said to them was, ‘Al-Lat and al-Uzza are evil!’

They answered in alarm, ‘Stop, Dimam! Beware of leprosy. Beware of elephantiasis! Beware of madness!’

He said, ‘Confoundedly you ! By Allah, they can neither hurt nor heal. Allah has sent a Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) and given a Book to him through which He seeks to deliver you from your sorry state. I testify that there is no god but Allah without and associate and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam). I have brought you what He has commanded you to do and what He has forbidden you.

Before that night was over there was not a man or a woman in his tribe who had not become a Muslim. Adi the son of Hatim, whose generosity was well-known, came to Madinah. He became a Muslim after witnessing the character and humility of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.

‘By Allah!’ he said, this has nothing to do with the way all the kings behave.

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah sent Mu’adh ibn Jabal and Abu Musa to Yemen to invite the people to Islam and he advised them, ‘Make things easy and not difficult. Cheer them up and do not make them afraid.’

THE OBLIGATION OF ZAKAT:
In the ninth year of the hijrah, Allah made zakat obligatory upon the Muslims.

The Tabuk Expedition

THE TABUK EXPEDITION:
The Arabs had never thought of fighting or attacking the Romans. They probably considered themselves to be not strong enough for that task.

The Romans, however, remembered the Mu’tah expedition and were still a threat. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah decided to lead a Muslim army into Roman territory before the Roman armies crossed the Arab borders and threatened the heart of Islam.

The Tabuk expedition took place in Rajab, 9 A.H. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah led the expedition in intense heat, when the dates were ripe and the shade of the trees was pleasant. It was a long journey through arid deserts towards a vast enemy army. He had made the position clear to the Muslims in advance so that they could make preparations for the journey. It was a difficult time because the Muslims were experiencing a severe drought.

The hypocrites made various excuses not to accompany the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah. They said they feared the enemy or the intense heat. They were reluctant to perform jihad and had doubts about the truth. Allah Almighty said of them: ‘Those who were left behind rejoiced in tarrying behind the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and were averse to struggling with their possessions and their selves in the way of Allah. They said, “Go not Forth in the heat.” Say. “The Fire of Jahannam is hotter did they but understand!” ‘(9: 81)

THE COMPANIONS’ RESPONSE TO JIHAD:
In preparing for the expedition, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had encouraged the wealthy to spend in the way of Allah. Some provided mounts for those who had neither provision nor mount, expecting a reward from Allah.

Uthman ibn Affan spent one thousand dinars on the ‘Army of Distress’ and the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah prayed for him.

THE ARMY TRAVELS TO TABUK:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah set out for Tabuk with 30,000 men from Madinah. It was the largest Muslim army ever to set forth on an expedition.

When they reached al-Hijr, the land of Thamud, he told the Companions that it was a country of those who were being punished for their sins.

‘If you enter the houses of those who did wrong, enter tearfully, fearing that what befell them might also befall you.’ He added that they must not drink any of al-Hijr’s water nor use it for ablutions. Because the soldiers had no water they complained to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah. He prayed to Allah and a dark cloud brought rain so that everyone could quench their thirst and store sufficient water for their needs.

THE MESSENGER(SALLALLAHU ALAIYHI WASSALLAM) OF ALLAH RETURNS TO MADINAH:
When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah reached Tabuk, the Arab amirs on the herders called on him and made treaties of peace. They also paid to him the jizyah tax. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah guaranteed their borders, the security of their territories and their caravans and ships travelling by land and sea. Letters to this effect were delivered to all parties.

Then came the news that the Romans had withdrawn from the border towns. They had decided not to encroach on Muslim land. The Prophet could see no reason to pursue them into their own territory as his goal had already been achieved.

He stayed at Tabuk for about two weeks and then travelled back to Madinah.

THE TRIAL OF KA’B IBN MALIK:
Among those who had stayed behind at the time of this expedition were Ka’b ibn Malik, Murarah ibn ar-Rabi’ and Hilal ibn Umayyah. They were among the first Muslims and had been thoroughly tested in Islam. Murarah ibn ar-Rabi’ and Hilal ibn Umayyah had been present at Badr and it was not their nature to not take part in the battle. The situation was only part of the Divine wisdom, so they would really examine themselves and be a lesson for all Muslims in the future. Such failings are usually because of procrastination, weak will and over-reliance on means.

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah forbade anyone to speak to them. All the Muslims obeyed him and people avoided them. They had to endure that trial for fifty days. Ka’b ibn Malik would attend prayers with the Muslims and visit the markets but everyone ignored him. But his suffering only increased his faith in Islam.

The wives of these three were also affected by the measures and no one was allowed to go near them either.

A further test came when the influential King of Ghassan heard what was happening in Madinah. He invited Ka’b ibn Malik to his court in order to honour him and lure him from Islam. But when the King’s messenger delivered the invitation to Ka’b he threw it into the fire. Allah’s examination was over and none of the three had failed the test. A revelation came from Allah to illustrate how their example would hold for all time. They had not deserted their faith but had found refuge and safety with Allah. The Qur’an says:

Allah has turned towards the Prophet and the Muhajirun and the Ansar who followed him in the hour of difficulty, after the hearts of a party of them almost swerved aside; then He turned towards them; surely He is Gentle to them, and he turned to the three who remained behind, until, when the earth became straitened for them, for all its breadth, and their souls became straitened for them, and they thought that there was no shelter from Allah except in Him, then He turned towards them, that they might also turn; surely Allah turns, and is Compassionate. (9: 117-18)

TABUK: THE LAST EXPEDITION
The expedition to Tabuk, in Rajab 9 A.H., was the last in the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s campaign. In all, the Muslims had fought in twenty-seven battles and taken part in sixty forays and expeditions. No conqueror had ever achieved such success with so little loss of life. Throughout the campaign a total of only one thousand and eighteen from both sides had been killed. Only Allah knows the number of those whose lives were spared in gaining security for the Arabian peninsula. Eventually it was so safe that a woman pilgrim could travel all the way from Hirah to Makkah without fearing anyone except Allah.

THE FIRST HAJJ:
The hajj was made obligatory in 9 A.H. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah sent Abu Bakr as amir for the hajj in that year. Three hundred men from Madinah went to Makkah with him. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah sent for Ali ibn Abi Talib and said to him, ‘Go out and announce to the people on the Day of Sacrifice that “no kafir will enter Paradise and after this year no idol-worshipper will perform hail nor do tawaf if he is in a state of nudity.’
Source: Al Islaah Publications

The Expedition of Ta’if

THE SIEGE OF THE THAQIF:
The soldiers of Thaqif who had escaped from Hunayn retreated to Ta’if. They locked the city gates after storing sufficient provisions for a year. Then they prepared for war against the Muslims. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and his army went to Ta’if at once and pitched camp outside the city wall. The gates remained locked against them. The Thaqif, who were good archers, shot so many arrows at the Muslims that the air seemed to be filled as if with a swarm of locusts.

The Muslims moved their camp back out of range of the arrows and laid siege to Ta’if. For more than twenty days heavy fighting continued and volleys of arrows were exchanged. In this prolonged siege the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah used a catapult for the first time. The enemy arrows took their toll of several Muslims’ lives.

When the siege was tight and the battle showed no signs of ending, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah commanded that the vineyards of the Thaqif be cut down. The enemy relied on these fine grapes for their livelihood. When the Thaqif begged him to spare the vines, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah replied, ‘l will leave them to Allah and kinship between us.’

He ordered that an announcement be made, ‘Any slave who comes out to us is free.’ About ten men came out.

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had not been given leave by Allah to conquer Ta’if so he told Umar ibn al-Khattab to declare that the siege was over and the army could depart. The announcement caused an uproar and soldiers said, ‘We are leaving without conquering Ta’if!’
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said, ‘Alright, go and fight.’
They attacked the enemy but many Muslims were wounded.
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah then said, ‘We are going tomorrow, Allah willing,’ and this time they felt relief.

THE BOOTY OF HUNAYN:
On his way back from Ta’if, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah stopped at al-Ji’irranah with his army. He waited for more than ten days for the Hawazin to come to him to say they had accepted Islam. When this did not happen, he began to distribute the spoils. The first people he gave to were the Mu’allaiat-al-Qulub, those whose hearts still needed to be won.

RETURNING THE CAPTIVES:
A delegation of fourteen Hawazin came to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and requested him to return to them their kinsmen and property. He replied, ‘You see the people with me? What I love most is the truth. Which are dearest to you, your children and your wives or your property!’

In unison they said, ‘We do not consider anything equal to our children and wives.’

He advised them, ‘Rise tomorrow when I pray and say, “We seek the intercession of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah with the Muslims and we seek the intercession of the Muslims with the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to return our wives and children to us.” ‘

When he prayed Zuhr, they got up and did as they had been advised. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah then said, As for what belongs to me and the Banu Abdul-Muttalib, it is yours, and I will make a recommendation to others for you.’

The Muhajirun and Ansar said, ‘What we have belongs to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.’

Three of the Banu Tamim, Banu Fazarah and Banu Sulaym refused to hand over their shares. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said to them, ‘These people have come as Muslims. I waited for them and I gave them a choice but they do not consider anything equal to their children and wives. Whoever has any of them and is happy to return them he should do just that. Whoever wants to keep his captives should also return them and he will be given six shares in exchange from the first booty Allah gives us.’

Everyone replied, ‘We are content with the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.’

He said, do not know who among you is pleased and who is not. You go back now and your chief will tell correctly about your affairs.’ All of them returned their captives’ women and children to them so that none of them were left behind. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah made a gift of a garment to each released captive.

A NOBLE GESTURE:
Among those who were brought to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was ash-Shayma’ bint Halimah as-Sa’diyah, his foster-sister. She had been treated roughly as they did not know who she was. When she said that she was the milk-sister of their companion, they did not believe her.

When ash-Shayma’ was taken to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, she said, ‘Messenger of Allah! I am your foster-sister!’
He said, ‘Can you prove that?’
She replied, ‘I still have the scar where you bit me on my back when I was carrying you.’
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah recognised the mark. He spread out his cloak for her to sit on, and treated her courteously.
He said, ‘If you like, you may live with me in affection and honour or, if you wish, I will give you provision and you can go back to your people.’
She said, ‘Give me provision and return me to my people.
She accepted Islam before she left, taking with her three slaves, a slavegirl, and some cattle and sheep.

THE THAQIF’S DECISION:
When the Muslims were returning from Ta’if, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah asked the Muslims to recite, ‘We are returning, repenting, worshipping and glorifying our Lord.’

Some said, ‘Messenger of Allah, curse the Thaqif!’
He raised his hands and entreated; ‘O Allah, guide the Thaqif to the right path and bring them here.’
‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud ath-Thaqafi caught up with the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah before he entered Madinah. He became a Muslim and returned to invite his people to Islam. He was very popular and well-respected in his tribe, but when he called them to Islam, they turned against him. They shot arrows at him; one hit him and he was killed as a martyr.

The Thaqif held out for some months after killing ‘Urwah, but after taking counsel among themselves, they decided that they had no hope of defeating all the Arab tribes around them which had accepted Islam. They decided to send a delegation to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.

NO LENIENCY:
When the Thaqif arrived, a tent was pitched for them in a corner of the mosque. They accepted Islam and asked the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to let them keep their idol al-Lat for three years. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah refused. But they continued to ask him, first for two years and then for one. Still he refused. Finally they asked for it for one month after their return. He refused this too, and sent Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, one of their people, to destroy it. The Thaqif also asked the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to excuse them from offering prayers. He told them, ‘Nothing remains in a religion without prayer.’

After the delegation returned home, Islam spread among the Thaqif until every last person in Ta’if was a Muslim.

The Battle of Hunayn

THE HAWAZIN:
Once Islam was attracting so much popular attention, its enemies made a final attempt to check its expansion. It was the Arabs’ last arrow in their quiver against Islam and the Muslims.

The Hawazin regarded themselves as the greatest tribe after the Quraysh. There had always been rivalry between the two. When the Quraysh submitted to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah in Makkah, the Hawazin became the undisputed champions of the idol-worshippers.

Malik ibn Awf an-Nasri, the Hawazin chief, called for war against the Muslims and the tribe of Thaqif supported him. They agreed to advance against the Muslims taking their property, women and children with them so that everyone would fight to the last in defence of his family and possessions.

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah set out with two thousand Muslims from Makkah, including those men who had only recently accepted Islam and some who had not yet accepted the faith, and ten thousand who had set out with him from Madinah. It was the strongest force mobilised so far to defend the honour of Islam. Some Muslims even boasted, ‘We will not be defeated today for lack of numbers.’

THE VALLEY OF HUNAYN:
The Muslims advanced to the valley of Hunayn before dawn on 10 Shawwal 8 A.H. The Hawazin were already in the valley, concealed in its ravines. The Muslims were terrified when the Hawazin suddenly loosed volleys of arrows, then appeared, unsheathing their swords, to attack as one man.

Many Muslims fled, none paying attention to anyone else. It was a critical moment. A complete rout of the Muslims was in sight. They were unlikely to put up any resistance after what had happened. In addition, a rumour spread among the people that the Prophet had been killed, just as had occurred in the Battle of Uhud, and the Muslim forces retreated still further.

THE HAWAZIN ARE DEFEATED:
Allah had chastised the Muslims for boasting about their strength and had made them taste the bitterness of defeat after the sweetness of victory. They had to remember that both come from Allah. Then the peace of Allah seemed to descend once more. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had stayed firm on his white mule; he had not shown any fear. Some of the Muhajirun and Ansar had remained with him. Al’Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib was holding the bridle of his mule when the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah called out:

‘I am the Prophet and there is no denying it. I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib, ‘
When a squadron of idol-worshippers advanced towards him, he took a handful of dust and threw it at the distant enemy lines. They were blinded by it.
When he saw his own men in confusion, he said, ‘O Abbas! Shout: Men of Ansar! Comrades of the acacia tree!’
They heard the call and answered, ‘At your service! At your service!’

Abbas(R.A.) had a loud voice which carried well. The soldiers rushed back towards him, dismounting from their camels and taking up their swords and shields. When a large group of them had gathered round the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, they bore down on the enemy and battle began. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah stood up in his stirrups and his people took heart. Both sides fought bravely and a group of handcuffed prisoners was brought to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and Allah sent down His angels to help. They filled the valley and the Hawazin were defeated. This is referred to in the Qur’an:

Allah has already helped you on many fields, and on the day of Hunayn, when your multitude was pleasing to you, but it availed you naught, and the land for all its breadth was straitened for you, and you turned about, retreating. Then Allah sent down His Tranquillity upon His Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) and upon the believers, and He sent down legions you did not see, and He chastised the unbelievers; that is the recompense of the unbelievers. (9: 25-6)

The Conquest of Makkah

THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH – PREPARATIONS:
When Islam was well established in the hearts of the Muslims, Allah decided that the time had come for His Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) and his community to enter Makkah. They would purify the Ka’bah so that it would be a blessed place of guidance for the whole world. They would restore Makkah to its previous status and the sacred city would offer security for all people once again.

A BROKEN TREATY:
In the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyyah it was laid down that anyone who wanted to enter into a treaty and alliance with the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah should be able to do so; and anyone who wanted to enter into a treaty and alliance with the Quraysh should also be allowed to do so. The Banu Bakr entered into an alliance with the Quraysh while the Banu Khuza’ah entered into one with the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah.

Long-standing hostility existed between the Banu Bakr and Banu Khuza’ah. The coming of Islam had put a barrier between the people as they had become engrossed in its affairs. The Peace Treaty enabled the Banu Bakr to settle an old score against the Banu Khuza’ah. One night the Banu Bakr attacked the Banu Khuza’ah by night when they were camped by a spring and killed some of their men. A skirmish developed and the Quraysh helped the Banu Bakr by providing weapons.

Some Quraysh leaders also fought with the Banu Bakr secretly by night, and the Khuza’ah were driven into the Haram. Some of the Quraysh said, |’We have entered the Haram. Mind your gods!’ Others replied thoughtlessly, ‘There is no god today, men of Banu Bakr. Take your revenge! You may never have another chance!

SEEKING HELP:
Amr ibn Salim al-Khuza’i went to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah in Madinah and recited some verses to him about the alliance between the Muslims and the Khuza’ah. He asked for help, saying that the Quraysh had violated the agreement. His tribe had been attacked at night, he maintained, and men had been killed in ruku and sajdah, while performing prayers.

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah assured him, ‘You will be helped, Amr ibn Salim!’ He then sent a man to Makkah to get confirmation of the attack and to offer the Quraysh the chance to redress their offence. Their reply was impulsive and they ignored the likely consequences.

THE QURAYSH ATTEMPT TO RENEW THE TREATY:
When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah heard their answer, he said, ‘I think you will see Abu Sufyan coming to strengthen the treaty and to ask for more time.’

That happened. The Quraysh were so concerned about what they had done that they charged Abu Sufyan with the task of getting the treaty ratified.

Abu Sufyan came to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah in Madinah and also went to visit his daughter, Umm Habibah, the wife of the Prophet. However, when he went to sit on the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s carpet, she rolled it up from under him.

Puzzled, he said to her, ‘My daughter, I do not know whether you think the carpet is too good for me or whether I am too good for the carpet.’

She replied, ‘This is the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s carpet and you are an unclean idol-worshipper. I do not want you to sit on his carpet.’

‘By Allah, ‘ Abu Sufyan retorted. ‘You have been spoiled since you left me.’

ABU SUFYAN FAILS:
Abu Sufyan went to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, but he did not receive any answer. Then he went to Abu Bakr and asked him to speak to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah for him but he refused. He tried to win over Umar, Ali and Fatimah but they all said that the matter was too serious for them to get involved. Abu Sufyan became confused about what to do.

MAKING READY:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah asked the Muslims to start preparing for an expedition but he asked them to keep it a secret. Later he announced that he was going to Makkah and ordered them to get ready.

He said, ‘O Allah! Impede the informers of the Quraysh so that we can take Makkah by surprise.’ He left Madinah with ten thousand men in Ramadan 8 A.H. and advanced as far as Marr az-Zahran where they set up camp. Allah concealed this information from the Quraysh, so they waited in uncertainty.

A PARDONING:
On the way, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah happened to meet his cousin, Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib. He ignored him because he had suffered insults and persecution from Abu Sufyan. The cousin complained to Ali that he had been ignored. Ali said to him, ‘Go to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and say to him what the brothers said to Yusuf, “By Allah, Allah has preferred you to us and we were indeed sinful. “(1 2: 91 ) The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah never Likes anyone to show more mercy than he.

Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith did as ‘Ail advised and the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah replied, ‘Have no fear this day. Allah will forgive you. He is the Most merciful of the merciful.

Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith accepted Islam and was known for his piety. He did not raise his head ever again in front of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah because he felt so ashamed of his past behaviour.

ABU SUFYAN IBN HARB ACCEPTS ISLAM:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was commanding the army and he ordered the campfires to be lit. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, who was spying out the ground for the Quraysh, said: ‘I have never seen so many fires or such an army.

Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib had already left Makkah with his wife and children as a Muslim Muhajir and had joined the Muslim army. He recognised Abu Sufyan’s voice and called to him, ‘See, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah is here with his army. What a terrible morning the Quraysh will have!’

He made Abu Sufyan ride on the back of his mule, fearing that if a Muslim saw him, he would kill him. Al-Abbas took him to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah who said, ‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan! Has not the time come for you to acknowledge that there is no god but Allah’

Abu Sufyan replied, ‘How kind and gentle you are! By Allah, I think that if there had been another god besides Allah, he would have helped me today.’

‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan! Is it not time that you recognised that I am the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah!’

Abu Sufyan replied, ‘May my father and mother be your ransom! How kind and generous you are! But by Allah, I still have some doubt as to that.’

Al-Abbas intervened, ‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan! Become a Muslim and testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah before you lose your head.’ Then Abu Sufyan recited the articles of faith and became a Muslim.

THE AMNESTY:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah was generous in granting amnesty to everyone so that no one in Makkah need be killed that morning. Only those who courted danger ran any risk of losing their life. He declared, ‘Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan is safe. Whoever locks his door is safe. Whoever enters the mosque is safe.’ The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah told his army not to use arms against anyone when they entered Makkah unless they met opposition or resistance. He directed the army not to touch property or possessions belonging to the people of Makkah and nothing should be destroyed .

ABU SUFYAN’S INFLUENCE:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah decided to demonstrate the power of Islam to Abu Sufyan. He asked Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib to take Abu Sufyan to where the marching squadrons would pass by.

The Muslim squadrons passed by like a surging sea with the different tribes bearing their standards. Whenever a tribe passed by, Abu Sufyan would ask Abbas about it and, when he heard the name of the tribe, he would mumble gloomily, ‘What have I got to do with them?’ Finally the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah passed by with his squadron in full, gleaming green armour. It was the regiment of the Muhajirun and the Ansar. Only their eyes were visible because of their armour.

Abu Sufyan said, ‘Glory be to Allah! Abbas, who are these?’

‘This is the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah with the Muhajirun and Ansar, ‘ he answered.
‘No one has any power or resistance against them, ‘ said Abu Sufyan. ‘By Allah, Abul-Fadl, the authority of your brother’s son has certainly increased.’
Abu Sufyan, ‘Abbas said, ‘This is not a kingdom, it is prophethood.’
Abu Sufyan replied, ‘Then it is wonderful.’

He stood up and shouted at the top of his voice, ‘O men of the Quraysh! This is Muhammad with a force you cannot resist. He has ten thousand men of steel. He says that whoever enters my house will be safe.’

The men shouted back, ‘Allah slay you! What good is your house to us?’
Abu Sufyan added, ‘And whoever locks himself indoors is safe and whoever enters the mosque is safe.’ So the people dispersed and went into their homes or into the mosque.

A HUMBLE VICTORY:
On the morning of Friday, 20 Ramadan, 8 A.H., the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah entered Makkah with his head bowed. When he realised the honour of the conquest Allah had bestowed. upon him, he felt so humble before Allah that his chin almost touched the back of his camel. He was reciting Surat al-Fath as he rode into Makkah in victory. He raised the standard of justice, equality, and humility. Behind him rode Usamah ibn Zayd, the son of his freed slave, rather than any sons of the Banu Hashim or of the Quraysh leaders, even though they were present.

One man, trembling with awe on the Day of the Conquest, was told, ‘Be at ease. Do not be afraid. I am not a king. I am only the son of a woman of the Quraysh who used to eat meat dried in the sun.’

MERCY NOT SLAUGHTER:
When Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah in the squadron of the Ansar passed by Abu Sufyan he called out, ‘Today is a day of slaughter. Today there is no more sanctuary. Today Allah has humbled the Quraysh.’

When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah’s squadron came near Abu Sufyan, he complained;, ‘Messenger of Allah, did you not hear what Sa’d said?’

‘What was that!’ said the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, and Abu Sufyan repeated what Sa’d had called out.

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah disliked Sa’d’s comments and replied, ‘Today is a day of mercy and forgiveness when Allah will exalt the Quraysh and raise honour for the Ka’bah.’

He then sent for Sa’d, took the standard from him and gave it to his son Qays. This meant that the standard did not really leave Sa’d because it only went to his son. But Abu Sufyan was satisfied and Sa’d was not too upset.

SMALL SKIRMISHES:
A small skirmish broke out between Safwan ibn Umayyah, ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl and Suhayl ibn Amr, who came up against the companions of Khalid ibn al-Walid. Twelve of the idol-worshippers were killed when they tried to stop the advance of the Muslim forces. The rest gave in without further bloodshed. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had told his men when they entered Makkah, ‘Do not fight anyone unless they attack you.’

PURIFYING THE HARAM:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah got down from his camel when everything had calmed down. He went to the Ka’bah first and performed tawaf. Around the Ka’bah were three hundred and sixty idols. With a stick he was carrying he began to push them over, saying, ‘The truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Falsehood is ever vanishing. (17: 81) ‘The truth has come and falsehood originates not nor brings again.’ (34: 49) The idols collapsed one by one, falling onto their faces. Pictures and statues were found in the Ka’bah and the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah ordered that they should also be destroyed.

A DAY OF PIETY:
Having performed tawaf, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah called Uthman ibn Talhah who had the key of the Ka’bah. The doors were unlocked and he went in. He had asked Uthman for the key before the hijrah to Madinah but he had received a rude answer and insults. He had shown tolerance by answering, Uthman, one day you will see this key in my hand. I will then put it where I wish.

Uthman had retorted, ‘The Quraysh will be destroyed and humiliated on that day.’

‘No, ‘ said the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, ‘Rather it will be a day of prosperity and security for the Quraysh.’ His words made such an impression on Uthman ibn Talhah that he came to believe the prediction would eventually take place.

When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah came out of the Ka’bah, Ali ibn Abi Talib stood up holding the key of the Ka’bah in his hand. He said to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, Grant us the guardianship of the Ka’bah along with providing water for the pilgrims.’
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah asked,
‘Where is Uthman ibn Talhah?

Uthman was summoned and the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said to him, ‘Here is your key, Uthman. Today is a day of piety and good faith. Keep it forever as an inheritance. Only a tyrant would take it from you.’

ISLAM: TAWHID AND UNITY:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah opened the door of the Ka’bah. The Quraysh had filled the mosque, and were waiting in rows to see what he would do. Holding the door frame, he said,

There is no god but Allah alone. He has no partner. He has made good His promise. He has helped His servant and He alone has put all allies to flight. Every claim of privilege, property or bloodline are abolished by me today except for the custody of the Ka’bah and providing water for the pilgrims.

O people of the Quraysh ! Allah has abolished the haughtiness of the Jahiliyyah and its veneration of ancestors. People all spring from Adam, and Adam came from dust.’ Then he recited this verse, ‘O mankind, We have created you male and female, and appointed you races and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely the noblest among you in the sight of Allah is the most God-fearing of you. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (49: 13)

NO DISCRIMINATION:
In the meantime, Fatimah, a woman of the Banu Makhzum had been apprehended for theft. Her community went to Usamah ibn Zayd, hoping that he could persuade the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to intercede on her behalf. When he spoke to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah about it, however, he was put to shame.

‘Do you dare to speak to me about one of the hudud, the limits laid down by Allah !’ the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah asked him.

Usamah beseeched him, ‘Pray for my forgiveness, Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah!’

That evening the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah made a speech. After praising Allah, he said, ‘The people before you were destroyed because when one of their noblemen stole, they ignored the offence but when one of the poor people stole, they administered the hadd (prescribed punishment). By the One who holds my life in His hand, if Fatimah bint Muhammad, were to steal, I would have her hand cut off.

Then he ordered that the woman’s right hand be cut off. She genuinely repented of her sin and went on to marry and lead a normal life.

PAYING HOMAGE IN ISLAM:
A large crowd gathered in Makkah to accept Islam and to pay homage to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah. He received them on Mount Safa where they took the oath of allegiance. They promised to obey Allah and His Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) to the best of their ability.

When the men had pledged their faith, the women took the oath, including Hind bint Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyan. She was veiled and tried to disguise herself because of what she had done to Hamzah, but the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah recognised her bold talk. ‘Forgive what is past and Allah will forgive you, ‘ she said to him.

My life is with you and my death will be among you’

When Allah opened up Makkah to His Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam), and he was back in his own homeland and city of birth once more, the Ansar said among themselves, ‘Allah has given him power over his homeland and city so he will probably stay here and not return to Madinah.’

The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah asked them what they were talking about. No one else knew about the conversation. At first they were too shy to tell him but eventually they confessed what they had said.
He assured them, ‘I seek refuge with Allah! I will live with you and I will die among you.’

REMOVING ALL VESTIGES OF IDOLWORSHIP:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah sent groups of his Companions to destroy the idols standing round the Ka’bah. All of the idols were broken including al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat. He sent a crier to announce in Makkah, ‘Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should destroy any idol in his house.’ He also sent representatives to the surrounding tribes telling them to destroy their idols.

Then the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah assembled the Muslims in Makkah and declared that the city would be a sanctuary forever. He said, ‘It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Hereafter to spill blood in the city nor to cut down a tree. It was not lawful for anyone before me nor shall it be lawful for anyone after me.’ The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah then returned to Madinah.

OUTCOME OF THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH:
The conquest of Makkah had a tremendous impact on the Arabs. It showed that Islam was the religion of Allah and paved the way for the whole of Arabia to accept the faith. From far and wide people came to pay their respects to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and to accept Islam at his hands. Allah spoke the truth:

When comes the help of Allah and victory and you see people entering the religion of Allah in throngs (Surah al-Nasr 110: 1-2).

The Expedition to Mu’tah

AN ASSASSINATION:
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah sent al-Harith ibn Umayr al-Azdi with a letter to Shurahbil ibn Amr al-Ghassani, provincial governor of Busra, under the Byzantine emperor, Heraclius. Shurahbil ordered that al-Harith be bound and then he had him beheaded. It was unknown for a king or a prince to have an ambassador or envoy put to death. Immense danger would face envoys and ambassadors in the future if Shurahbil was allowed to get away with this action. It also humiliated the sender of the message itself. This man who had exceeded the limits had to be punished .

REPERCUSSIONS:
When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah heard what had happened, he decided to send a military force to Busra. It was in Jumada al-‘Ula in 8 A.H. when three thousand men under Zayd ibn Harithah left Madinah. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had appointed Zayd, his freed slave, as their commander and the army contained many of the leading Muhajirun and Ansar.

The Prophet said, ‘If Zayd falls, then Ja’far ibn Abi Talib is in charge. If Ja’far falls, then Abdullah ibn Rawahah will take over.’

The Muslims bade the soldiers a fond farewell. A long and arduous journey faced them as well as an enemy backed by the strongest empire of the world.

The Muslims advanced to Ma’an where they heard that Heraclius was at al-Balqa’ with a hundred thousand Roman troops and an equally strong force drawn from Arab tribes. The Muslims camped at Ma’an for two days while deciding what to do.

Then they said, ‘Let us write to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah to inform him about the strength of the enemy. Either he will send us reinforcements or he will command us to go ahead and we will obey his order.’

However, Abdullah ibn Rawahah made a speech of encouragement. ‘People! By Allah! You are reluctant to go towards the very thing you came out to search for martyrdom. We are not fighting the enemy on the strength of numbers nor of our power. We will fight them with the religion Allah has honoured us with. Come on ! We will win either way, be it victory or martyrdom.’ So they set off again to face their enemy.

DEDICATED FIGHTERS:
When they were on the outskirts of al-Balqa’, the Roman and Arab forces advanced towards them. As the enemy drew nearer the Muslims took up positions in a village called Mu’tah and this was where the battle was fought.

Zayd ibn Harithah (may Allah be pleased with him) who carried the standard of the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, fought bravely until he was martyred. Then thirty-three-year-old Ja’far took the standard and fought until he was hemmed in by the enemy. He jumped off his horse, hamstrung it and fought on foot until his right hand was sliced off. He took up the standard in his left hand but that too was cut off. He then bore the standard between his arms but eventually he fell down dead. He had received ninety wounds on his chest, shoulders and arms from spears and swords, but no injuries were found on his back.

After Ja’far was killed, Abdullah ibn Rawahah held the standard aloft. He got off his horse and advanced on foot. His cousin came up to him with a meat-bone saying, ‘Strengthen yourself with this. You have had nothing to eat during these battles of yours.’ He took the bone, ate only a little and then threw it away. He picked up his sword again and fought bravely until he was killed.

KHALID(R.A.), A WISE GENERAL:
The Muslims agreed that Khalid ibn al-Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) should take up the standard. He was a wise and courageous leader, famous for his knowledge of military tactics. He withdrew the Muslim army southwards while the enemy withdrew to the north. Night fell. He thought it best to avoid confrontation and any further fighting in the dark. Both forces, tired from fighting, chose the safe option. The Romans had heard of Khalid’s technical skills and decided not to pursue the Muslim army. They were so disheartened that they did not resume the fighting the next day and the Muslims were spared.

ADVANCE INFORMATION:
While the Muslims were fighting at Mu’tah, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah described the battle scene to his Companions in Madinah. Anas ibn Malik said that he announced the death of Zayd, Ja’far and Ibn Rawahah to them before he had received the news. He said, ‘Zayd took the standard and fell. Then Ja’far took it and fell. Then Ibn Rawahah took it and fell.’

The tears were trickling down his face as he spoke. He added, ‘The standard was taken by one of the swords of Allah (meaning Khalid) until Allah gave the Muslims their victory.

He also said that Allah gave Ja’far two wings In place of the two hands he had lost, With them he could fly in the Garden of Paradise wherever he wished. Thereafter he was called Ja’far at-Tayyar (the Great Flier’), or Dhu’l-janahayn (‘The One with Two Wings’).

COME-AGAINST NOT RUNAWAYS:
When the returning army was near Madinah, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah and the Muslims went out to meet them. It was the first time a Muslim army had returned without winning a decisive victory. Some people started to throw dust on the soldiers, shouting, ‘You runaways! You fled from the path of Allah!’ But the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah told the people, ‘They are not runaways, but come-agains. They will come again to battle if Allah wills.