Tag Archives: Hadith

Importance of Good Manners

1.It is related by Abdullah Ibne Amr radhiyallahu anhu that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “The best of you are those who possess the best of manners.”
Bukhaari and Muslim

2.Abu Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu related to us that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “Muslims who possess better morals are the most perfect in Faith”.
Abu Dawood and Daarami

3.It is related by Abu Dardaa radhiyallahu anhu, that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “On the Day of Reckoning, the most weighty item in the Scales of Deeds will be good manners”.
Abu Dawood and Tirmizi

Commentary
It would not be correct to assume from the above Traditions that good morals were even superior to faith or the principal tenets like Imaan, Salaat, Sawm(fasting), Zakaat and Hajj. The Holy Companions to whom these sayings were directly addressed had already learnt from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam that among the various branches of Islaam, the most important were Imaan (faith) and the doctrine of Divine Unity, and, then, came the fundamental duties. As for the rest of the departments of religious life, some of them take procedence over others in various ways, and the place of moral virtues, undoubtedly, is very high, and in the attainment of success and salvation in After-life and the gaining of the countenance of the Lord, their significance is beyond question.

4.Aaishah radhiyallahu anha relates that she heard the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam say: “A Believer with good manners and a good moral disposition gets the same reward as he who fasts (permanently) and spends his nights in prayer”.
Abu Dawood

Commentary
It shows that a person who is a true Muslim, both in Belief and Action, and, also, possesses good manners, but does not engage himself much in nafl (supererogatory) fasts and prayers attains the same degree of excellence, through moral goodness, as the one who, generally, stands up in prayer throughout the night and fasts all day long.

riyaduljannah.com

Abdullah ibn Mubarak

by Sh. Zakariyya Khan

Throughout the history of Islam there have been renowned personalities who have dedicated their life to the preservation of Islam against the tide of disbelief and deviation. In the early period of Islam, the preservation of the Hadith (traditions) was an indispensable element, which needed to be preserved in order to safeguard the deen (religion). Thus, Abdullah Ibn Mubarak was one of these personalities who ensured that Islam was presented to us today in the same form it had been 1400 years ago.

Abdullah Ibn Mubarak was born in 118 hegira / 726 CE, in the town of Marwa. In his childhood he studied elementary subjects, such as writing and arithmetic, which were considered as essential. Thereafter, his life took an unusual turn, thus, he became occupied in the pleasures of the world. He lived a luxurious life of jest and play, until one night, when he received a wake up call from Allah Ta’lah. As a routine custom one-day he invited his friends for a party in his orchard, here, they played and joked until they were overpowered by sleep. However, unlike before, in his sleep he saw a bird perched on the tree reciting a verse in which Allah Ta’lah sends an admonition to his servants:

Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe to be affected by the reminder of Allah, and that, which has been revealed of the truth. (Quran 57:16)

The message carried by this majestic verse was so profound that it led Abdullah Ibn Mubarak to discard the comforts of this temporary world in order to search for eternal bliss. He instigated his thoughts into actions by, firstly, breaking the musical instrument he had in his hand and this was his first step in Zuhad (asceticism).

Abdullah Ibn Mubarak was now on a new path in search of sacred knowledge, especially Hadith (traditions). He travelled the entire Islamic world in order to preserve Hadith, until Abu Usama declared that ‘I have not seen a person searching for Hadith throughout the corners of the world like Abdullah ibn Mubarak. Consequently, he became the undisputed authority in the science transmitting Hadith (traditions). He attained such a lofty rank that the critics of this science unanimously agreed on the fact that he was of a sound nature and a possessor of an extraordinary memory. To achieve such acceptance is unparalleled in the history of Islam; however, this status was necessary for a person who was to be the torch barer of the Hadith. The renowned scholar of critical analysis of transmitters, Yahya Bin Maeen, has wonderfully illustrated his noble traits:

He (Abdullah ibn Mubarak) was intelligent, cautious (in narrating Hadith), trustworthy and a true scholar of Hadith. It is sufficient to know (his status) that many narrated from him, thus he is one of the narrators of Imam Bukhari and the rigorous conditions applied by Imam Bukhari in the verification and sound nature of a narrator is all well known, therefore there is no reason to expound on it.

Hence, he was a firm pillar in the establishment of Hadith, so whenever there was a narration he would take extreme measures to ensure the authenticity of Hadith before he would narrate it. This is why his legendary statement still resonates today in the hearts and minds of the scholars of Hadith that ‘Isnad (the chain of narration) is a part of Deen (religion), if there was no Isnad, then everyone would say what they desired’. Thus, everyone, including the king knew his extreme precaution. Thus, the Abbasi King Haroon Al-Rashid once retorted to an atheist that was brought on trial, who had claimed to have fabricated over one thousand Hadith, none of which were established;

‘What is your rank in compression to Ishaq Al-Farazi and Abdullah ibn Mubarak? O Enemy of Allah! They will separate them through a sieve, letter for letter (from the collection of Hadith)’.

Not only did Abdullah ibn Mubarak gain proficiency in Hadith, but also in Fiqh (jurisprudence) he was a master in his field. The fact that he studied under the greatest living jurists of his time, including men like Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik and Sufyan Thawri, shows that he had developed an appreciation of this science.

He was also praised for being a prolific writer in his time; Imam Dhahabi states that his books include Kitab Al-Arbaeen, Kitab Tareek, Kitab Jihad and Kitab Zuhad wa Raqaiq. Unfortunately all of his written works are not published today.

One of his greatest assets was his Zuhad (asceticism) and the desire for the hereafter. Even though, he had an annual yearly income in excess of one thousand Dinars. All of which he spent in the path of Allah. This is exemplified in his excursions to Makkah for Hajj, while on the journey he would lavishly spend on his associates and fellow travellers despite the fact that he was continuously fasting.

Finally, in the year 181 hegira / 797 CE, during the month of Ramadan Abdullah ibn Mubarak departed the world while striving hard in the path of Allah. The endeavours he took during his life are numerous and cannot be covered here. However, a glimpse into the life of this great Imam testifies how taking precaution in the narration and narrators preserved the Hadith from being marred with taint. We are therefore indebted to the service rendered by our pious predecessors who fulfilled their rights upon us and especially Abdullah ibn Mubarak.
Source: LUISOC

Imam Bukhari

Who is not aware of Hadhrat Imam Bukhari (R.A) and his kitaab ‘Saheehul- Bukhari’?
However in this present day, the majority of Muslims use his kitaab to refer to whenever in need of a supporting reference for their actions or deeds without the knowledge of the life of the great author.

The famous and respected Muhaddith, Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) genealogy is as follows: Mohammed Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Mugheera Ibn Bardizbah.
His father Ismail was a well-known and famous Muhaddith in his time and had been blessed with the chance of being in the company of Imam Malik, Hammad Ibn Zaid and also Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (R.A.).

Imam Bukhari (R.A) was born on the blessed day of Friday 13 Shawwaal 194 (A.H). He had lost the use of his eyes in the early stages of his childhood. However, due to the pious and lengthy prayers of his mother his eyesight was returned miraculously. The news had reached his mother through a dream in which Hadhrat Ibrahim (A.S) had appeared and said, “Due to your bountiful and sacred prayers Allah Ta’alaa has returned the eyesight of your son.”
The dream was proven to be true in the morning.

Ismail the father of Imam Bukhari (R.A) had died in Imam Bukhari’s childhood, leaving him in the care of his mother where he was nourished with love and care. At the age of sixteen after having memorized the compiled books of Imam Waki and Abdullah Ibn Mubarak, he performed Haj with his elder brother and mother. After the completion of Haj Imam Bukhari remained in Makkah for a further two years and upon reaching the age of eighteen headed for Medinah, and spent his nights next to the grave of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam compiling the books of ‘Qadhaayas-Sahaabah Wat-Taabi’een’ and ‘Taareekhul-Kabeer’ with the moonlight as a means of lighting.

Imam Bukhari (R.A) traveled a great deal in order to expand his knowledge. He made two trips to Syria and Egypt and stayed six years in Arabia. He also happened to return to Kufa, Baghdad and Basra four times and at times remained there for a period of five years. Also at Haj season he used to return to Makkah.

Imam Bukhari ( R.A) first started listening and learning ahaadeeth in 205 A.H., and after profiting from the Ulamaa of his town he started his travels in 210 A.H. There are a great number of teachers from whom Imam Bukhari (R.A) actually gained his much respected knowledge. It has been known to be said by Imam Bukhari (R..A) himself that, “I have written ahaadeeth from 1080 different people all of whom were scholars.” However, he profited most from Ishaq Ibn Rahway and Ali Ibn Madeeni (R.A). Imam Bukhari (R.A) has narrated ahaadeeth from Ulamaa of five different categories. He has also narrated ahaadeeth from his students believing in the fact that no person shall be titled a scholar of ahaadeeth until he has narrated from his elders, youngsters and contemporaries.

Imam Bukhari (R.A) also had a vast amount of students. It has been stated that approximately 9 000 people were privileged to sit in his lessons where he taught his Kitab ‘Sahih-Ul-Bukhari’. There were travelers amongst these from all corners of the world in order to join these pious sittings and to be honoured with a glimpse of the knowledge that he held and which never failed to astonish anybody.

Memory
Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) memory was considered to be inhuman, for as soon as the praying of a hadith would finish Imam Bukhari (R.A) would repeat it orally. It has been known that in his childhood he had memorized 2 000 ahaadeeth.

There is one spectacular incident which took place in Baghdad when Imam Bukhari (R.A) took up temporary residence there. The people having heard of his many accomplishments, and the attributes which were issued to him, decided to test him so as to make him prove himself to them. In order to do that they chose one hundred different ahaadeeth and changing the testimonials and the text of the ahaadeeth they were then recited by ten people to Imam Bukhari (R.A).
There was a crowd of gathered people from within and outside the city to witness the outcome of such a test. When the ahaadeeth were recited Imam Bukhari (R.A) replied to all in one manner, “Not to my knowledge.” However, after the completion of all the ahaadeeth Imam Bukhari (R.A) repeated each text and testimonial which had been changed followed by the correct text and testimonial, such was the memory of Imam Bukhari (R.A).

Abstinence
His abstinence was also an attribute which was incomparable and undauntless. He had been left a considerable amount of wealth by his father however, due to his generosity he spent it all in the path of Allah so that at the end he had been left with no money forcing him to spend his day on one or two almonds.

He never took advantage from the generosity of any king or ruler, although many occasions arose. Once he fell ill and when his urine was tested, the results showed that he had not consumed curry for a long time. Upon questioning he said, “I have not consumed curry for the last forty years.

The Governor of Bukhara made a special request for Imam Bukhari (R.A) to make daily visits to his home in order to teach his children. Imam Bukhari (R.A) declined stating that, “I give greater respect to knowledge rather than to people, for it is they who are in need of the knowledge and it is they who should seek it.”

Upon hearing this the Governor was further annoyed by Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) answer and made a second request that Imam Bukhari (R.A) make a special arrangement to teach his children alone without anyone else being present which was also refused by Imam Bukhari (R.A). The Governor was infuriated by the second refusal and ordered Imam Bukhari (R.A) out of Bukhara. The people of Samarqand hearing of this quickly issued an invitation to Imam Bukhari (R.A) to come to their town. However, there was also a difference of opinion within the people of Samarqand which forced Imam Bukhari (R.A) to turn towards Khartang.

It was here that he spent the month of Ramadaan and in the month of Shawwaal headed towards Samarqand, where death found him whilst he was traveling. Imam Bukhari died in the month of Shawwaal 256 A.H., at the age of 62.
(To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return.)

Writings
There are a number of books compiled by Imam Bukhari (R.A) however, Bukhari Shareef has gained great esteem and a high status in the learning and praying of ahaadeeth.
A specific date has not been known as to when he had started the writing of Bukhari Shareef, however, we do know that after he had finished he had shown the manuscript to his teachers Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (R.A) for approval who died in 241 A.H, along with Ibnul-Madeeni who died in 234 A.H, and lastly Ibn Maeen who passed away in 233 A.H. It has also been recorded that it took the noble writer a period of 16 years to gather the ahaadeeth and to write Bukhari Shareef which sets the date back to 217 A.H, as the year in which he started the compilation; Imam Bukhari (R.A) being merely 23 years of age.

Before Imam Bukhari (R.A) had started to collect ahaadeeth there had actually been quite a few published books of ahaadeeth in which Imam Bukhari (R.A) found ahaadeeth of both weak and strong testimonials, which gave him the idea to compile such a kitaab containing ahaadeeth of only strong testimonials. Ishaaq Ibn Rahway (R.A) agreed to this idea which strengthened Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) decision.

Imam Bukhari (R.A) states, “There was once a time during one of our sessions when my teacher Ishaaq Ibn Rahway remarked it would be appreciated if someone could collect ahaadeeth which held strong and reliable testimonials and write them in the form of a kitaab.” This inspired Imam Bukhari (R.A) which was later strengthened by a dream in which Imam Bukhari (R.A) was positioned in front of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam with a fan in one hand to aid him in ridding the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam of all flies which would rest upon him. Upon waking, Imam Bukhari (R.A) visited several interpreters for an appropriate interpretation. They all answered that it meant he would in future cleanse the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam of all lies spoken by the people through narrating misunderstood ahaadeeth. This gave Imam Bukhari (R.A) great comfort and strength once he started the writing of his kitab Al-Jame-ul-Sahih. The complete name of the kitaab is ‘Al-Jame-ul-Sahih-al-Musnad-min-ahaadeethe-Rasulillah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam-wa-sunanihi-wa-Ayyaamihi,’ which means a collected version of ahaadeeth in the form of a kitaab which relates to us the sayings, actions and the life of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.

Imam Bukhari (R.A) had taken great care in writing the ahaadeeth and choosing those which met the standards and conditions which he set to find ahaadeeth with only strong testimonials which included only reliable and trustworthy testifiers. He spent 16 years in writing the kitaab, altering it a total of three times. Allaamah Ayni (R.A.) reports of Ibn Tahir’s remark that Imam Bukhari had written Sahih-ul-Bukhari in his hometown Bukhara. Ibn Bujair however, relates that he had started his compiling in Makkah, and some have reported of seeing him in Basra. There is still another differing remark made by others who comment on seeing him in Madinah to write his kitaab. However, we find Imam Bukhari (R.A) relating himself that he wrote Sahih-ul-Bukhari in Masjid-e-Haraam.

Before he actually placed a hadith in his compilation he used to perform ghusl and prayed to Allah through two rakah nafl prayers asking for guidance. Imam Bukhari ( R.A) worked such that only after being completely satisfied with the hadith in question did he give it a place in his kitaab. Due to this great care which was taken, the people were heard to say that the ahaadeeth which Imam Bukhari (R.A) has narrated have been so carefully phrased and with such precision that it is felt Imam Bukhari (R.A) had heard the ahaadeeth directly through the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.

Abu Zaid Marwazi reports that I was once asleep in between the ‘Black stone’ and ‘Maqaam-e-Ibrahim’ when the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam appeared in my dream he stated, “O Abu Zaid! For how long shall you teach Imam Shafi’s (R.A) kitaab ? When shall you start the teaching of my kitaab ?”

I questioned, “O Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam! Which kitaab is yours?” He replied, “Mohammed Ibn Ismail’s Al-Jame-ul-Sahih.”

Hafiz Ibn Hajar (R.A) reports that Imam Bukhari (R.A) has kept it of utmost importance to only narrate ahaadeeth of a strong testimonial which can be proven by the name of the kitaab. However, along with this Imam Bukhari (R.A) also made an effort to explain all points which are difficult to understand, which is the reason why he has given a plentiful host of meanings for one sentence which may include a word that is in reality difficult to understand. Imam Bukhari (R.A) has included within his kitaab the art of narrating ahaadeeth which have been divided into eight different chapters. These chapters contain subjects which have been sub-titled and are famous for the ingenious way in which they have been phrased.

Imam Bukhari (R.A) has imposed conditions which all narrators and testifiers must meet before the hadith can be selected. One condition requires that all testifiers must have a strong memory.

There are also restrictions made upon this condition :

1. All the Muhadditheen who possess great knowledge of ahaadeeth must agree upon the testifiers’ in question ability to learn and memorize, along with his reporting techniques.

2. The testimonial must be complete without any missing testifiers.

3. If there are two different narrators of a hadith related to them by a Sahaabi then the hadith shall be given a high stage in rank. However, if only one narrator can be found and the testimonial proves to be a strong one then this shall be accepted without any doubts.
Allaamah Nawawi (R.A) relates that all scholars in Islam have agreed that Sahih-ul-Bukhari has earnestly gained the reward of being the most authentic after the Holy Qur’an.
Sahih-ul-Bukhari consists of 7 275 ahaadeeth including those ahaadeeth which have been repeated. However, should the repeated ahaadeeth be excluded then the total number of ahaadeeth will be 4,000.

Hafiz Ibn Hajar counted the ahaadeeth and concluded that there was 7 397 where the ahaadeeth have been passed down from the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam directly and with the narrations of Sahabah or Tabi’een etc.; procuring a total of 9 407 ahaadeeth in all. Although after excluding the repetitions he found 2 353 narrations of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam and 160 sayings of the respected Sahabah totaling to 2 513 narrations in all.

Bukhari Shareef has been set apart from other compilations, gaining a distinctive honour due to the following reasons :

1. Whilst Imam Bukhari (R.A) was engaged in the writing of Bukhari Shareef, if the need arose to stop work for a period of time, then he would continue his work only after writing ‘Bismillah’ which is the reason why ‘ Bismillah’ has been found to be written in between in many places.

2. At the end of all chapters Imam Bukhari (R.A) has concluded by use of a word within the sentence so as to give one a point to ponder upon and hopefully so that one becomes more aware of the primary objective of life. e.g. after the first chapter he has included a word which brings one to think of their short life in this world and of their death. His intention is that one reads Kitaabe-Bukhari with death in mind.

3. Imam Bukhari (R.A) has paid great attention towards the beginning and ending his kitaab with an appropriate hadith. For the first hadith narrated within the kitaab is based upon intention which gives one the opportunity to be sincere with himself as to what he intends to gain from studying the words of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam which have been narrated throughout the kitaab. Also the last chapter which Imam Bukhari (R.A) has chosen to end his kitaab with is ‘Kitaab-ul-Tauheed’ which gives one a whole host of words which may be said in order to praise the oneness of Allah; for it is this which is believed to be the sole aid for all humans when they shall find themselves in the unbearable position of being reckoned for their sins on the Day of Judgment.

Hadhrat Shaikh Moulana Muhammad Zakariyya (R.A) has summed up the above in these words,” Imam Bukhari (R.A) has commenced his kitaab with the hadeeth ‘ Innamal Aamaal….’ and concluded it with ‘Kalimataan.

Source: Inter-islam.org

Read Sahih Bukhari online

Sincere Repentance

In a hadeeth reported by Imam Bukhari, Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

والله إنِّي لأَسْتَغْفِرُ الله وأَتُوبُ إِلَيْه في

 

اليَوْمِ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً

By Allah I seek forgiveness from Allah and repent to him more than seventy times in a day
[Tirmidhi]
A person cannot progress on the path of tazkiyah (spiritual purification) without sincere tawbah (repentance). Tawbah is to return to one’s original pure state. The Ulama (scholars) of tazkiyah say that a person should be repentant every moment of the day. Repentance is not only verbal, but more importantly, repentance should be in one’s state of heart and mind.

The proof of tawbah and it’s main component is remorse and one can never be remorseful without remembering one’s sins. A person’s character should be dripping with remorse and this inspires others to forgive. The true state of tawbah reveals itself in a person’s speech, gait and appearance.

Source: Content Soul

Five Things to Act Upon

It is related by Abu Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu: “[Once] the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said to us: ‘Who is there to learn these few things from me, and, then, to act upon them and to tell them also to others who will act ?’ I replied, ‘O Apostle of Allah! I am present.’ The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam thereupon, held my hand [in affection] and said, ‘Refrain from the acts Allah has forbidden and refrain from them strictly. If you will do so, you are a very great worshipper [and this worship is better than the abundance of supererogatory (nafl) prayers]. Secondly, remain satisfied with what Allah has fore-ordained for you. If you do so, you will attain contentment and become very rich. Thirdly, be kind and gentle in your behaviour towards the neighbours. If you will do so, you are a perfect believer. Fourthly, desire for yourself what you desire for others. If you do so, you will become a true Muslim. Fifthly, do not laugh much for too much laughter kills the heart.”
Musnad-i-Ahmed, Tirmidhi

Commentary
The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam wanted to tell the five above mentioned things. In order to attract the attention of the listeners, he first said, “I want to tell a few special things. Who among you will like to learn them? But he will have to pay back their claim by acting upon them himself, and, also, relating them to others so that they, too, may profit.”
It shows that there are two claims on anyone who acquires the knowledge of faith, he should act according to it and, also, pass it on to others. Even if he does not carry out into practice fully what he learns, he must not refrain from imparting it to others.

The five things the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam has taught in this Tradition are of fundamental importance.

(i) He is most devout bondsman and a great worshipper who abstains from what is unlawful though he may not be offering up a great deal of supererogatory (nafl) prayers and observing much of supererogatory fasts.

(ii) One derives immense satisfaction and peace of mind from being content with what Allah has decreed for him.

(iii) Good and noble behaviour towards the neighbour is a prerequisite of perfection in Faith.

(iv) A true Muslim must always wish well of others to the extent of desiring for them what he desires for himself.

(v) One should not laugh much because excessive laughter deprives the heart of feeling and makes it insensitive.

Riayduljannah.com

Consider no one Lowly because of Poverty

Sahl Ibne Sa’ad narrated that once a person (who, perhaps, came from the class of the rich and the distinguished) passed in front of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. On seeing him the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam asked one of those who were sitting with him at that time what he thought of him. He replied, “Sir, he is one of the most respectable men, such is his eminence that if he makes an offer of marriage to the daughter of any family, it will be accepted and she will be married to him, and if he makes a recommendation in any matter, it will be granted.” At this reply, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam kept quiet and did not say anything.

After some time, another bondsman of the Lord passed by and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam asked the same person again, “What do you think of him?” He replied, “O Apostle of Allah! He is one of the weak and indigent Muslims. He is such a man that if he makes an offer of marriage anywhere, it will be rejected and if he makes a recommendation in any matter, it will be turned down and if he wants to say anything, it will not be heard.”

The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, thereupon, said, “If people like the one who passed by earlier (are so numerous as to) fill the earth, this weak and poor bondsman is still better than (all of) them.”
(Bukhari, Muslim)

Commentary
Generally, material prosperity and worldly eminence are considered to be the criterion of greatness and people are impressed by them while those who are not rich and influential are looked upon as lowly, however good and noble they may be from the moral and spiritual point of view. The above saying is aimed at removing the folly.

It is quite possible that the person who was sitting with the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam, and with whom he was talking to at that time, was also a victim of it and the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam had spoken to him like that for his correction.

Commentators have opined and the words of the Tradition also show that both the persons who passed by were Muslims, but with the difference that the first one to go past was superior in wealth and position and the second inferior financially and in social rank.

It was because of this that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam remarked that if the likes of the first mentioned were so numerous that the earth was filled with them, the poor and the needy bondsman who passed by later would by himself be better and nobler than all of them.

It is related by Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu anhu that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “Many among those whose hair are dishevelled and bodies covered with dust and who are pushed away from the door (due to their apparent wretchedness) occupy such a lofty place in the sight of the Lord, that if they vow in the name of Allah: Allah will surely fulfil their vow.”
(Muslim)

Commentary
It shows that no one should be scorned at or rejected as inferior because of his unkempt and untidy condition. Some of them attain a position of such nearness and preference with the Lord, by effacing themselves for His sake, that if, relying upon Him they swear about a thing that it will or will not be that way, Allah does not put them to shame and makes it happen accordingly.

It is worth remembering that the object of the above Tradition is not to encourage squalor and untidiness, as some people imagine. From the Prophet’s sallallahu alayhi wasallam sayings and other biographical accounts it is clear that he, generally liked to be neat and clean and advised others also not to be dirty and ill-clad. When he saw anyone going to the extreme of self-denial and wearing dirty and tattered clothes and caring nothing for their appearance, he reproved them sternly. This Tradition is intended merely to give a warning advice to those who regard the poor and destitute bondsmen of the Lord as despicable and do not want to mix with them due to self-conceit.

 

Four Habits to Possess

It is related by Abdullah Ibne Amr radhiyallahu anhu that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:”Four things and habits are such that if you possess them then there is no harm if the world [and its blessings]are lost or do not come to [your] hand. [These are] :

(1) safe-keeping of trust;

(2) truthfulness in speech;

(3) good manners; and

(4) caution and abstinence in food.”

Musnad-i-Ahmad and Bayhaqi

Commentary
The word ‘trust’ is used in a very wide sense in the terminology of Islaam. It includes the fulfilment of the rights of Allah and of men as well as the carrying out of covenants and promises. Thus, a person who is trustworthy, i.e., who fulfils the rights of Allah as well as of men honestly and is truthful when he speaks and possess good manners and noble qualities of mind and character and exercises self-restraint in food and drink and does not over eat or partake of things that are forbidden or of a doubtful nature is, positively a very fine specimen of humanity. He is not only a perfect man in this world but in the never-ending life of the hereafter, too. Such exceptional favours will be conferred upon him that each one of them will be more valuable than all the blessings of the world put together. If a man like him remains poor in the earthly existence, he should not grieve for what he has is far superior to all that the world has to offer.

Obtaining Wealth for Virtuous Ends

Shaykh Manzoor Nu‘maani

It is related by Abu Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: “Whoever seeks to obtain wealth by legitimate means (and) with the object that he may not have to beg from others and can provide his dependants with the necessities and pleasant conditions of life, as well as lend a helping hand to neighbours, will appear before Allah on the Day of Judgment, in such glory that his face will be radiant like a full moon. And whoever seeks, though by legitimate means, to obtain wealth with the object that he may become very rich and can give himself airs before others and be able to practice liberality in order to win the admiration of men will appear before Allah in such a state that He will be severely displeased with him.”
(Bayhaqi)

Commentary
It shows that the earnings of wealth by lawful means and for a worthy purpose is not only permissible but a virtue of such a high order that there will be a special favour of the Lord on him on the Day of Judgment due to which his face will shine like the full moon. But if the aim and purpose of obtaining wealth may only be to become rich and important and to make an ostentatious display of one’s prosperity, even if it is earned fairly and honestly, it will be so sinful that Allah will be very angry with such a bondsman on the Day of Requital. Ill-gotten wealth, in any case, is a curse of the highest degree.

It is related by Abu Kabshah el-Anmari radhiyallahu anhu that he heard the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam say: “There are three things for which I can swear and, in addition to them, there is another thing which I want to tell you. So, remember it. The three things for which I can swear are:

(i) No one will become poor by spending in the way of Allah (i.e., Allah will bestow prosperity on him and multiply his wealth);

(ii) Injustice will not be done to a bondsman Ð an injustice on which he remains patient, Allah will raise him in esteem in return for it (i.e., when a wrong is perpetrated on a person and he bears it patiently, Allah will cause an increase in his high rank and good reputation); and

(iii) No one will open the door of begging but Allah will open the door of poverty for him (i.e., whoever will make it his habit to extend a begging hand towards others will be condemned to want and indigence by Allah).

The thing that I want to tell you and which you should remember, apart from these, is that this world is for four types of men (i.e., four types of men are found here).

(i) The bondsmen whom Allah has granted wealth as well as the knowledge of the correct way of life; they fear Allah in the expenditure and utilisation of their goods and show kindness to relatives by means of them and spend them in the way it ought to be done for the good pleasure of the Lord. These persons are of the highest grade.

(ii) The bondsmen whom Allah has endowed with correct knowledge (and the right spirit) but has not given them wealth; their intention is sound and they (honestly) feel and say that if they come into wealth, they too will spend and utilise it as such-and such a (virtuous) man does. The recompense of both these types of men is equal (i.e., people of the second category will be rewarded in the same way as those of the first due to the purity of their intention).

(iii) The bondsmen whom Allah gave wealth but not the knowledge (and spirit) of using and spending it properly; they spend their goods foolishly and in wrong ways and without the fear of Allah, and do not show kindness to relatives through their worldly possessions nor spend them as they ought to be spent. These are the worst kind of men.

(iv) The bondsmen whom Allah gave neither wealth nor right knowledge (and spirit); they say that if they obtain wealth, they, too, will spend it as such-and-such a (wasteful and self-indulgent) man does. Such is their intention and the sin of both these types of men is equal (i.e., the fault of the people of the last category will be identical, due to their evil intention, to that of the people belonging to the third category owing to their misdeeds).
(Tirmidhi)

Commentary
The meaning of the above Tradition have been explained in the course of the translation. It is, however, necessary to bear in mind that the intention of evil conduct which has been condemned here as equivalent to the evil conduct itself belongs to the class of resolve and determination, i.e., the bondsman may be eager and bent upon committing a sin but cannot do so owing to an incapability or lack of opportunity. When the intention of a person is of that degree, it will amount to the commission of the sin and will be deserving of punishment in the same way as the transgression upon which his heart is set.

The Fortunate One

It is related by Abu Dharr Ghifaari radhiyallahu anhu that the Apostle of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said : “He became fortunate and successful whose heart Allah set aside for faith and made it safe and sound [i.e., whom He blessed with faith so pure and untainted that not an iota of doubt or hypocrisy could enter his heart and protected it against the spiritual maladies like envy and ill-will], and whose tongue He endowed with truthfulness, and in most self with serenity [i.e., whose soul was such that it derived solace from the remembrance of Allah and the things that were pleasing to Him], and whose natural disposition He put right and free from weaknesses [so that it did not tend towards sin], and whose ear He made fit to hear and eyes He made fit to see [i.e., who could hear the truthful word of Allah and see His signs and take warning and draw lessons from them]. Thus, the ear is like the funnel [through which things go into the heart as the liquid is poured into a bottle], and the eye is the conveyor and stabilizer of things which it entrusts to the heart. And blessed, indeed, is the man whose heart the Lord made capable of remembering.”
Musnad-i-Ahmed and Bayhaqi

Commentary
What has been said about the ears and eyes in the concluding part of the above Tradition is to underline the importance of the part the two organs play in the life of a man. Whatever reaches the heart which, so to speak, is the monarch in the human body, and affects it, is generally, through the ears and the eyes. Consequently, the success and salvation of the bondsman is dependant on the ability and fitness of his eyes and ears to see and hear.

The last sentence denotes that even though the things of success and good fortune reach a man’s heart through the eyes and ears, salvation and felicity in the Hereafter cannot be attained unless the heart is capable of preserving and making proper use of them.

In the Qur’aan the three faculties of seeing, hearing and understanding have been mentioned, from place to place, in a way as if man’s guidance and deliverance was contingent on their soundness.

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